The Discus fish is popular among aquarists due to its unique appearance. The fish is not recommended for beginners as they are hard to care for and feed. Due to selective breeding, various discus fish types continue to develop with time.
Here, you will learn detailed information about the discus fish, including discus fish care, feeding, and breeding tips that can help aquarists who want to keep these magnificent fishes in their aquariums.
|Level of Care||Difficult|
|Life Expectancy||10 years|
|Diet||Plants, worms, and crustaceans|
|Tank Size||50 gallons|
|Water Conditions||820F to 860F (280C to 300C); pH level between 6 and 7|
|Tank Environment||Plants with soft sandy gravel|
|Tank Mates||Other peaceful fishes|
The fish can be challenging to keep due to its special dietary needs and water properties. But most find the effort is worth it as they get to see these fish swim in the aquarium.
Discus are native to the Amazon River Basin’s lakes and rivers and its tributaries, including the Rio Negro. The fish tend to congregate near ‘galhadas’ or fallen trees near the shores. They are commonly found in quiet waters and rarely seen in waters with strong currents.
Discus are also found in breaks in the water flow created by fallen trees or a small inlet. They are also found in shaded areas with soft sediments. Can replicate these natural conditions in an aquarium. But it can be difficult for beginner aquarists.
Discus fish are named due to their disc-shaped appearance. They vary in appearance, with some fish rounder or more elongated than others.
They also have different color patterns. A group of discus with different colors and display patterns can make your aquarium look breathtakingly beautiful.
The fish have rounded anal and dorsal fins and have a pronounced caudal fin and pelvic. They have horizontal and vertical patterns on the body and fins that add to their appeal.
Discus Fish Types
Discus fish are categorized based on their color and patterns. They have a range of intense colors, including red, green, blue, brown, and yellow. Fishes, such as Albino Platinum discus, are white with glowing red eyes, while the Red Alenquer has a deep blue and red color.
A common variety is a checkerboard discus fish with a mottled turquoise colour over a deep red base. You can find many different types of the discus at pet stores.
Discus are generally nonviolent. But they can sometimes get aggressive towards one another. They tend to become aggressive during breeding time. Therefore, keep the submissive and shy ones in a separate aquarium as they can’t compete with others when feeding.
Similar to other cichlid species, discus can compete in a shoal as per a pecking order. Larger discus fish should be kept separately from the smaller ones to ensure that they live in harmony.
Discus spend most of the time in the middle level of the aquarium. But the fish will rise to the top of descent to the bottom to forage. They are free-swimming fish that occasionally require some cover, such as plants or large driftwood inside the tank.
Discus Tank Mates
Most aquarists don’t consider mixing discus with too many other types of fish. There are only a few fishes that are compatible with discus. Most fish species cannot tolerate the warm water conditions that are needed for the discus to thrive.
Some suitable aquarium mates for discus that can live in warm water include:
- Neon blue discus fish
- Dwarf cichlids
- Rummy nose tetras
- Sterbai cory catfish
An important to consider when selecting fishes to keep with discus is that discus is slow eaters. If you keep discus with fast eaters like barbs or cardinal tetras, your discus fish will probably starve.
Even suitable mates like German blue rams and clown loaches will be too fast for the fish. Avoid putting discus with too many other fishes as they may lose out on nutrition.
Tank Conditions for Discus
Discus can thrive in soft and warm water. Water hardness level should be between 1 and 4 dH. The aquarium water temperature should be 820F to 860F (280C to 300C). But the ideal temperature for wild discus is 900F (320C). The water pH level should be between 6 and 7.
You can use an aquarium heater to maintain the ideal water temperature. Moreover, consider using deionized water to create the best condition for your discus fish.
Changing water is essential to remove waste buildup. Replace up to 25 percent of the water every week. Make sure to treat tap water using a water conditioner when refilling the aquarium. Also, Should keep the nitrate level in the tank at 20 ppm for non-planted tanks and 40 ppm for planted tanks.
Discus Fish Tank Setup
Discus, as mentioned previously, live in calm waters in the wild. To create a natural environment, you need to ensure that the tank’s water movement is gentle.
You can decorate the tank with floating plants, broadleaf plants, and wooden objects. Consider arranging the wood vertically to simulate downed trees and branches.
Discus love to forage at the bottom of the tank. So, the tank substrate can be sand or any smooth surfaced gravel. You can find many different types of plants that can survive warm temperatures, such as bacopa, java fern, anubias, and sword plants.
Higher water temperature decreases the oxygen level. So, adding air stones is recommended as it can improve oxygen levels inside the tank.
The water inside the aquarium should be de-chlorinated before putting the fish inside the tank. You should also make sure that the water flow is slow as it mimics the fish’s natural condition.
Using driftwood or a spray bar is recommended to slow down the flow of water. However, make sure that the wood pieces do not injure the discus fish as they swim inside the tank.
How to Feed Discus Fish?
Discus freshwater fishes are omnivores. They tend to eat both plants and insects. The fish’s forage at the bottom in the wild, looking for small crustaceans. They also eat a variety of plants growing in lakes and rivers.
It would help if you fed discus twice a day. You can give a wide variety of food items to the discus fish. Algae rounds, shrimp pellets, corn flakes, tropical granules should constitute the majority of the diet.
You can also give treats, such as frozen and live warms, to them occasionally. Consider rotating the diet daily for the best results.
A common problem with feeding is giving them food that is too big for their mouth. If you see the fish-eating food and spitting it out, it indicates a problem with the food size.
How to Breed Discus Fish at Home
Breeding discus fish is relatively tricky. The fish pair up and spawn quickly. But it can be challenging to keep them from eating their eggs. The parents eat their eggs the first few times, especially when there are other fishes in the tank.
You can place a wire tube over the eggs to prevent the eggs from being eaten. It would also help if you considered separating the females after they have laid their eggs since they are more likely to eat the eggs.
The breeding cycle typically occurs twice a year. Discus fish may lay eggs every week during the breeding period. They lay their eggs for up to fifteen weeks. The fry will hatch from the eggs after three days of laying the eggs. They eat the body mucus produced by the parents during the next three days.
Dangers and Diseases You Should Know
Discus fish are sensitive to pathogens. They usually scour for food scraps at the bottom of the aquarium that is a haven for parasites, viruses, and bacteria.
To reduce the risk of diseases, you can buy a tank with a bare bottom. Another option is to feed your discus fish twice or thrice a day for up to 3 minutes so that they become full and don’t go looking for food at the bottom.
Here are some of the common diseases that affect discus fish, along with the suggested treatment options.
Discus fish may sometimes develop a hole-in-the-head caused by bacteria. The disease commonly occurs due to the high nitrate content of the water. The hole is sometimes near the mouth or eyes.
Afflicted fish appears stagnant and motionless. The condition can be fatal if left untreated. You can treat the condition using a solution of Potassium Permanganate, formalin, or fluke tabs. Make sure to continue the treatment for up to four weeks. If the condition is not improved, you should use another formulation.
Gill fluke is another common disease that affects the gills of the fish. Fish afflicted with the condition display laboured breathing. The affected fish can also become paralyzed and lay at the bottom of the tank. Sometimes, the affected fish displays aggressive behaviour.
Another visible sign of gill fluke is that the fish may rub against the aquarium wall or piping. You can use an antibacterial chemical solution such as a formulation to treat the condition. Quarantine the affected fish before using the solution for treating the disease.
Cloudy eyes are also a common illness that affects discus fish. The condition mostly occurs when the pH level becomes too low. Sometimes, this happens when the fish scratches against something or gets injured in a fight.
Discus fish’s eyes have a protective layer, which means it won’t result in a complete loss of eyesight. A bit of salt and a coat from API with aloe vera will help in restoring the condition.
Their eyes will start to heal, and the circle around the eyes will begin to disappear. But it would help if you treated the condition early; otherwise, you will lose the eyesight.
A discus may become ill due to a parasitic infection. It would help if you treated the fish with Metronidazole (Flagyl). Also, increase the ventilation and water temperature, which should be between 86°F and 92°F (300C and 330C) for treating parasitic infection.
Tapeworms can also cause illness. If the fish has not lost appetite, feed medicated food to it. Soak the food in a cup of water and about 10 mL of Flagyl for an hour. You should feed the fish with the medicated food every two days for up to ten days.
In case the fish has stopped eating, you can use a syringe to feed the fish. Put the discus on a wet towel to feed the fish in this manner. The fish may not absorb all the food. But it will ensure that the medication gets inside the body, thereby treating the condition.
What Is the Ideal Discus Fish Tank Size?
Discus requires a large aquarium with at least 50 gallons of water. If you are keeping a group of discus, you should keep them in a 75-gallon tank. The best aquariums are tall rather than wide as they can accommodate the body shape of the fish.
How does Big Do Discus get?
Discus, in most cases, will be the largest in a tank. The fish can reach up to 10 inches in size. The average size of the discus fish is 8 inches.
How Long Do Discus Fish Live?
Discus fish tend to live for up to 10 years. To ensure that the fish lives a long time, you should feed them twice and minimize stress. They are also rather shy creatures. So, you should limit the amount of traffic near the fish. Additionally, please do not allow your kids to tap on the aquarium glass and disturb them.
Avoid putting the aquarium containing discus fish near the TV or flashy lights. Anything that will make them feel safe and comfortable inside the aquarium will help enhance their life.
Where Can You Find Discus Fish for Sale?
You can buy discus from pet stores, local breeders, and online shops. These fishes are available at different prices.
Discus are schooling fish that will be happier if surrounded by a group of their kind. You should purchase 10 to 13 juvenile fish of the same size and place them in a 75-gallon water tank.
Once they get bigger, you should look for fishes that display aggression and sell them to the pet store. In this way, you will end up with a group of six or more discus swimming peacefully inside your aquarium.
When purchasing discus fish from a pet store, you should ask about the water conditions where they raised them. Make sure that raised the fishes in an aquarium with pristine water and ideal conditions. Properly raised discus fish tend to live longer than the fishes that were raised in stressful conditions.
How to Ensure Discus Live a Long Life?
Taking good care of the fishes through frequent observation and adjustment of the water parameters is essential. The fish is sensitive to water changes. An imbalance can create stress on the fish.
The fish also require more frequent cleaning of the tank. You should change 25 percent of the water and clean the bottom of the tank weekly.
You can buy kits at the pet store to test water parameters. Check the water temperature daily to ensure that the temperature is within the recommended range.
Spend time with your fish and notice their behaviour. If you notice unusual behaviour such as loss of appetite or rubbing against the aquarium wall, you should immediately quarantine and treat the affected fish.
Wrapping it All Up: Are Discus Ideal for Your Aquarium?
Discuss freshwater fish require great care. The water temperature should be monitored and kept warm at all times.
It would help if you also fed them a special diet mentioned in this guide. The fish will be active, grow faster, and show off spectacular colours with the right diet and tank conditions.
Keeping discus fish healthy is involves a lot of effort. You have to clean the water and continuously monitor the water conditions. Moreover, breeding the fish is also not easy.
But the rewards are worth it. You get to see a mesmerizing display of beautiful fishes swimming peacefully in the aquarium.