Oscar Fish are known for their territorial behavior and are prone to aggression when placed in close proximity to other fish.
At first glance, they appear to be rather peaceful because of their graceful swimming patterns, but that isn’t the case.
Most aquarists are attracted to the Oscar fish because of their vivid colors and active presence in the tank,
but will also appreciate their higher-than-average intelligence and complicated social behavior.
|Level of Care||Medium to Difficult|
|Temperament||Territorial and Aggressive|
|Life Expectancy||Live for over 20 years|
|Size||1 feet and above|
|Diet||Meat and vegetables|
|Tank Size||50+ gallons|
|Tank Environment||Freshwater with caves and rocks|
|Tank Mates||Large peaceful fish|
About Oscar Fish
Native to the Brazilian, Columbian, and Peru waters, they can be found in the Amazon river and the surrounding waters.
Their population is also scattered across China and North America, but this could be attributed to the fish industry. Their Latin name is Astronotus oscellatus and they belong to the Cichlidae family.
They will live for over 20 years and grow up to a size of around 12 inches long.
As most fishkeepers will quickly find out, they are not very friendly, which is why it should only be looked after by experienced aquarists.
They are easy to feed because of their omnivorous diet and will eat just about anything, but you will have a hard time finding suitable tank mates.
The Oscar is definitely worthy of a place in your tank, and their complex behavior will have you on the hook for several hours on end.
In this guide, we’ll learn all there is to know about the Oscar, including tank mates, breeding guide, ideal tank setups, and much more.
One of the most beautiful freshwater fish you can find, with varied markings off red, yellow, and orange on the sides.
The majority grow in the wild often have dark brown and green blotches. Lemon and Red Oscar have bodies that have a solid color, which may change over time.
The most popular variant of the Oscars is the albinos who have bold white markings all over their body.
Their fins are mostly black and their eyes have an orange are an orange rim that slightly protrudes above the head.
They will grow up to a size of at least 12 inches in both the aquarium and the wild and weigh in at around 1.5 kg. The fish industry is known for creating new varieties through selective breeding.
Are Oscars Fish Aggressive in Nature?
They are deeply territorial, so make sure to take this into account before adding them to your tank.
They are extremely likely to hunt their tank mates and will do so with the intent to kill if another fish gets too close or seems to encroach onto their territory.
Their levels of aggression get even higher when it’s feeding time and mating, which can fuel a lot of that territorial behavior.
They will spend the majority of their time swimming during the mid-section of the aquarium, although, they’ll often swim down to the bottom of the tank to get something to eat.
They have extremely destructive tendencies and will uproot decorations and plants while they search for food, which means that everything in the tank must be properly secured.
Once you manage to set up the tank correctly and pair them with the right fish, you can somewhat control their temperament.
Oscar Fish Tank Requirements and Conditions
They originate from the fast-moving South American freshwaters with their neutral pH values.
Their bodies will not tolerate anything too acidic or alkaline. Make sure your water tank can provide high water flows to mimic the conditions found in Amazonian rivers. This should be fairly easy to do.
Oscar’s Tank Setup
Create a layer of soft substrate at the aquarium’s base. The substrate should be extremely soft, so sand would be a good place to start.
This is because they are known to dig underneath the substrate, and anything too course could hurt their bodies.
When it comes to decorations, you have got a lot of choices in the matter. However, if you’re going for that all-natural look, consider adding only bogwood and rocks around the tank.
Either way, make sure to firmly secure the decorations in their spots otherwise the Oscars will uproot and destroy them.
Before selecting plants, make sure to choose hardy species that can withstand the trauma of being around the aggressive Oscars, a good candidate would be the hornwort.
While Oscars are unlikely to eat live plants, they will hurt them while digging into the substrate.
Oscars Tank Conditions
- They easily reach over 12 inches in size and will need a pretty big tank to live, anything less than 50 gallons would be too small,which could contribute to elevated stress levels and fuel their aggression. Add 20 to 30 gallons more for each additional fish.
- The water should be extremely neutral between 6 to 8 pH at 75-80 degrees Fahrenheit.
- There’s a lot of sunlight in the Oscar’s natural habitat, so make sure to install a few artificial lighting too.
- Make sure to install a heater if you live in colder climates where temperatures are known to drop below 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
Other than that, you don’t need special apparatus to regulate the water, just a normal filter for cleaning.
Just make sure to attach the equipment firmly or they will get dislodged out of the area because your Oscar may attack it.
Having an adventurous temperament, the Oscar will try to jump out of the tank, so make sure to attach a very firm lid to the tank.
These are relatively big fish at 1.5 kg and will easily knock out the roof if it isn’t securely attached.
Oscar’s Tank Mates
As mentioned above, the Oscar is not looking to make any friends. Their aggression will cause other fish to live in extreme stress.
That being said, their natural habitats are extremely diverse, so they can get along with others if their tank is large enough. For the most part, you should only keep them in your tank if you don’t want them to turn aggressive.
However, if you want to add mates, only choose large and peaceful fish that can defend themselves when the going gets tough (and it will).
Ideal tank mates include the Sailfin Plecos and Jack Dempseys, both of which are large communal fish. Smaller fish will not survive long.
What do Oscar Fish Eat?
It is relatively easy to provide a healthy diet to Oscars because they are omnivorous and will eat just about anything.
In their natural habitat, They would thrive on smaller fish, plant debris, and insects.
Their main diet always consists of lots of meat and proteins, with vegetables thrown in the mix for some variety. You can also provide them with pellet foods and flakes from a pet store.
While most flakes are designed to provide a well-balanced diet to your Oscar, you can buy those specifically made for Oscars.
Other food choices include live and frozen foods including brine shrimp, daphnia, and bloodworms. Live foods will quickly bring out the natural instincts of your Oscars.
If you have spare vegetables leftover, you can try chopping them up and feed Them.
They might eat a few, but this won’t become the main part of their diet provided if they’re getting all their nutrition.
You should feed them 2 to 3 times every day, in amounts they can finish in 3 to 4 minutes. Other Oscars are known for getting violent when it’s feeding time, so watch out.
Caring for Oscar Fish
Oscars are not ideal for beginners because they require a lot of care. They have a fairly large appetite and grow very big, which means they will make a lot of mess on a semi-regular basis. This means their tank needs to be cleaned every once a week.
Although Oscars are relatively more resistant than other fish to diseases, they are prone to getting sick. One common disease is lateral line erosion, which causes holes and cavities to form on their bodies.
The best way to treat this disease is to change their diet and provide them with more nutrients.
Live food can cause your Oscar to fall ill since they often harbor bacteria. This makes it really important to quarantine feeder fish before introducing them to your Oscar’s diet if you want to prevent them from getting sick.
Avoid overfeeding your Oscar because this could lead to various issues including constipation.
Their main diet consists of dried food which is a problem for fish as they could contribute to bloat and blockage that could ultimately result in their death.
The best way to counter this problem is to buy dry foods containing probiotics to minimize the risk of bloat, blockage, and constipation.
Alternatively, you can use supplement foods that contain a high level of moisture content.
Oscar Fish Breeding Guide
Oscars are monomorphic species, which means that both sexes have the same appearance. This also makes it harder to breed them.
You will have to take a closer look at their genitals to properly identify them. And even then, it can be extremely tough to breed them because Oscars are extremely picky when it comes to choosing a mate.
To overcome this problem, some fishkeepers often buy breeding pairs. Alternatively, you can buy them young.
The idea is that as they grow together, they will build some form of connection and will eventually form pairs.
The only problem is that Oscars will take around 2 years to reach maturity. This is an effective way to breed different varieties and colors of Oscars.
In their natural environment, these Cichlids would breed at the peak of the rain season.
You can mimic these conditions by decreasing the temperature of the tank by a few degrees, changing the water every few days, and sprinkling some water on the surface for added effect.
Oscars will indicate that they’re ready to mate by flaring their gills and fins. This will create vibrations in the tank.
Before breeding, the pair would find a suitable place to lay their eggs. They’ll clean a few rocks to lay eggs. Some females are known for producing over 3000 eggs.
Oscars are known for defending their eggs until they hatch (which only takes a few days). Males will guard the eggs and stay close by while females will fan the eggs to prevent the silt and sediments from smothering them.
How to Hatch Oscar Eggs
Oscar eggs will hatch within 2 to 3 days of being laid. It is common to find that all of the eggs have disappeared from the tank,
this is because they haven’t been fertilized and the parents have eaten them. Oscars may also consume their eggs if they feel unsafe or become upset for any reason.
In some cases, it could take a little while before a pair will actually become parents.
Unfertilized Oscar eggs can develop a type of fungus that could spread to fertilized eggs. You can remove the fungus by adding Methylene blue to the tank.
Fertilized Oscar eggs will have a tan or light brown color as opposed to the white unfertilized eggs.
It is not uncommon for the fry to get eaten by its own parent, which means you may have to intervene and provide the fry with another place to call home. This will increase their chances of survival.
Make sure to move the eggs to another tank before they start hatching. Expect the parent Oscars to get violent as they attempt to defend their eggs as you try to remove it.
When transporting the eggs to a new tank, place them into a container to prevent the eggs from getting exposed to air. Now you’ll have to simply wait and watch.
Note: Borrow some of the water from the old tank into the new tank. An Oscar fry will not survive in poor water conditions.
In the wild, the parents will oxygenate their eggs, but you can do the same with an air stone. Place the air stone next to the egg.
The air stone will create bubbles that flow across to the eggs. These bubbles will play the same role as the Oscar mother fanning her eggs with her pectoral fins.
When the eggs are about to hatch, you’ll notice the fry visibly moving within their eggs.
For the first few days, the fry will have an egg sack that will provide it with nutrition, so you won’t have to feed it. Once the egg sag is fully consumed, it’s time for you to intervene.
Provide the fry with insofuria before graduating up to baby brine shrimp in a week.
Make sure to feed the fry every 3 days, taking care to remove any excess food and waste in the tank. In the wild, an Oscar fry will stay by its parent’s side until it’s about 1 inch long.
In the tank, the parents could easily become too aggressive and territorial to let the fry reach adulthood.
When the fry is around 2 inches long, you could sell it to pet stores.
It is common for eggs to not hatch at all. If this problem persists, your Oscars may be infertile. In this case, find a new pair of Oscars and start anew.
Where to Buy Oscar?
It is easy to buy Oscars from a pet store near you. However, if you want to buy a pair, you may have to get a little creative.
Fishkeepers will often have a pair of Oscar fish for sale on online stores and forums, so you can try there.
Make sure your Oscars are healthy before buying them. Make sure their appearance matches the description of the species you want to buy.
Some Oscars share the same traits, making it slightly difficult to identify them in stores. Getting this right is important because each species may have its own requirements for an aquarium.
How Big do Oscar Fish Get?
Oscar fish can grow to a length of between 12 inches and 18 inches long. When fully mature, they reach a weight of up to 3 pounds. In aquariums, they will reach only about 12 inches, but larger sizes have been reported.
How Long do Oscar Fish Live?
In the wild, Oscar fish can live for about 20 years. However, if you provide them with the right aquarium conditions, care, and diet, they can live for more than 15 years, give or take.
Final Thoughts: Is Oscar the Right Fish For Your Aquarium?
Oscars are territorial fish that will quickly make life difficult for other fish in your tank. They can be cruel (and deadly) to their fry and smaller fish. As a general rule,
if it can fish in your Oscar’s mouth, it won’t have very long to live. Breeding is next to impossible if a pair hasn’t already been established before buying them.
But other than that, caring for an Oscar is relatively easy. But if you care about breeding, it’s best to look elsewhere. Because of their long life span, you will quickly become attached to your Oscar fish.